7.01.02 - Genetic, biochemical and physiological processes
Sharing the present knowledge on the effects of anthropogenic pollution on forest trees and ecosystems (natural, managed, tree plantations) represents the primary aim of this working group in order to locate research needs and stimulate novel research concepts and activities.
Risk assessment is to be consolidated on a mechanistic basis. To this end, structural and functional clarification of stress response is to guide cause/effect scaling within trees (relating molecular regulation to biochemical/physiological processes) and towards the stand, ecosystem/landscape and regional/global level.
Hereby, abiotic and biotic interactions, i.e. between pollutants and climatic and edaphic factors, as well as competitors, pathogens/endophytes, herbivores and soil microorganisms (incl. mycorrhizae) demand for particular attention.
Knowledge on "mechanisms of action" of pollutants and of plant performance is to be examined for "indicator development" and usability for differential stress diagnosis.
The significance of pollution as a component of climate change and impact factor on global resource cycling, with consequences for carbon sequestration of forest ecosystems, production efficiency of renewable, biogenic resources, and hence, post-Kyoto policies, requires increasing awareness in research.
Focus is to be directed, therefore, not only on industrialized, but increasingly also on industrially developing regions of the world (e.g. East Asia, South America and Africa).
For proposed future research see: State-of-knowledge reports.
State of Knowledge
CORNEJO P, MEIERA S, BORIEB G, RILLIG MC, BORIE F. 2008. Glomalin-related soil protein in a Mediterranean ecosystem affected by a copper smelter and its contribution to Cu and Zn sequestration. Science of the Total Environment 4 0 6: 1 5 4 – 1 6 0.
DOMINGOS M, KLUMPP A, RINALDI MCS, MODESTO IF, KLUMPP G, DELITTI WBC. 2003. Combined effects of air and soil pollution by fluoride emissions on Tibouchina pulchra Cogn., at Cubatão, SE Brazil, and their relations with aluminium. Plant and Soil 249: 297–308.
FORTI MC, BOUROTTE C, DE CICCO V, ARCOVA FCS, RANZINI M. 2007. Fluxes of solute in two catchments with contrasting deposition loads in Atlantic Forest (Serra do Mar/SP-Brazil). Applied Geochemistry 22:1149–1156.
FOWLER D et al. (2008) Ground-level ozone in the 21st century: future trends, impacts and policy implications. The Royal Society, Science Policy Report 15/08, pp. 148
FURLAN CM, DOMINGOS M, SALATINO A. 2007. Effects of initial climatic conditions on growth and accumulation of fluoride and nitrogen in leaves of two tropical tree species exposed to industrial air pollution. Science of the Total Environment 374: 399–407.
FURLAN CM, MORAES RM, BULBOVAS P, SANZ MJ, DOMINGOS M, SALATINO A. 2008. Tibouchina pulchra (Cham.) Cogn., a native Atlantic Forest species, as a bio-indicator of ozone: Visible injury. Environmental Pollution 152: 361-365.
KARNOSKY, D.F., PREGITZER, K.S., ZAK, D.R., KUBISKE, M.E., HENDREY, G.R., WEINSTEIN, D. AND NOSAL, M., PERCY, K.E. 2005. Scaling ozone responses of forest trees to the ecosystem level in a changing climate. Plant Cell and Environment 28: 965-981.
KARNOSKY, D.F., SKELLY, J.M., PERCY, K.E., CHAPPELKA, A.H. 2007. Perspectives regarding 50 years of research on effects of tropospheric ozone air pollution on US forests. Environmental Pollution 147, 489-506.
KARNOSKY, D.-F., WERNER, H., HOLOPAINEN, T., PERCY, K., OKSANEN, T., OKSANEN, E., HEERDT, C., FABIAN, P., NAGY, J., HEILMAN, W., COX, R., NELSON, N., MATYSSEK, R., 2007. Free-Air Exposure Systems to Scale up Ozone Research to Mature Trees. Plant Biology 9, 181-190.
KLUMPP G, FURLAN CM, DOMINGOS M, KLUMPP A. 2000. Response of stress indicators and growth parameters of Tibouchina pulchra Cogn. exposed to air and soil pollution near the industrial complex of Cubatão, Brazil. The Science of the Total Environment 246: 79-91.
Kozovits AR, Matyssek R, Blaschke H, Göttlein A, Grams TEE (2005) Competition increasingly dominates the responsiveness of juvenile beech and spruce to elevated CO2 and/or O3 concentrations throughout two subsequent growing seasons. Global Chance Biology 11: 1387-1401
LA ROVERE EL ET AL. 2006. Greenhouse Gas Mitigation in Brazil: Scenarios and Opportunities through 2025. CENTER FOR CLEAN AIR POLICY – Brazil.
MATYSSEK R, SANDERMANN H (2003) Impact of ozone on trees: an ecophysiological perspective. Progress in Botany 64, Springer Verlag Heidelberg, pp. 349-404
MATYSSEK R, BYTNEROWICZ A, KARLSSON P-E, PAOLETTI E, SANZ M, SCHAUB M, WIESER G (2007) Promoting the O3 flux concept for European forest trees. Environmental Pollution 146:587-607.
MATYSSEK R., SANDERMANN H., WIESER G., BOOKER F., CIESLIK S., MUSSELMAN R., ERNST D. (2008) The challenge of making ozone risk assessment for forest trees more mechanistic. Environmental Pollution 156: 567-582.
MATYSSEK R, BAHNWEG G, CEULEMANS R, FABIAN P, GRILL D, HANKE DE, KRAIGHER H, OßWALD W, RENNENBERG H, SANDERMANN H, TAUSZ M, WIESER G (2007) Synopsis of the CASIROZ case study: Cabon sink strength of Fagus sylvatica L. in a changing environment - Experimental risk assessment of mitigation by chronic ozone impact. Plant Biology 9:163-180.
MATYSSEK R (ed.) 2007. Ozone sensitivity of adult forest trees. Plant Biology 9 (special issue), pp. 163-356
MORAES RM, DELITTI WBC, MORAES JAPV. 2003. Gas exchange, growth, and chemical parameters in a native Atlantic forest tree species in polluted areas of Cubatão, Brazil. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 54: 339–345.
PAOLETTI, E., 2006. Impact of ozone on Mediterranean forests: A review. Environmental Pollution 144, 463-474.
Papers from the IUFRO meeting in a special issues 2006 of the Journal "Forst, Snow and Landscape research" Vol 80 / 2 & 3: Metal fluxes and stresses in terrestrial ecosystems. Link: http://www.wsl.ch/publikationen/journal/7631_EN
SANDERMANN H., WELLBURN A.R., HEATH R.L. 1977. Forest decline and ozone: a comparison of controlled chamber and field experiments. Springer Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, Ecological Studies, Vol. 127, 400p.
SANDERMANN H, MATYSSEK R (2004) Scaling up from molecular to ecological processes. In: Sandermann H (ed.) Molecular Ecotoxicology of Plants. Ecological Studies 170, Springer Verlag, pp. 207-226
WIESER G, TAUSZ M (eds.). 2006. Proceedings on the workshop: Critical levels of ozone: further applying and developing the flux-based concept. BFW, Wien, 392p.
WIESER G, TAUSZ M (eds.). 2007 Trees at their Upper Limit: Treelife Limitation at the Alpine Timberline. Springer Series: Plant Ecophysiology, Vol. 5. 232p.
WIESER G, TAUSZ M. 2007. Critical levels for ozone effects on vegetation: further applying and developing the flux concept. Environmental Pollution (special issue) 146: 577-770.
WEATHERS KC, LOVETT GM, LIKENS GE, CARACO NFM. 2000. Cloudwater inputs of nitrogen to forest ecosystems in southern Chile: Forms, fluxes, and sources. Ecosystems: 3: 590–595.