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Publications and references


A special issue for the journal International Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystem Services & Management 12(1-2) was published on "Synergies between Biodiversity and Timber Management" in April 2016. This Special Issue is based on a technical session entitled “How does biodiversity help to manage high-value timber species, and vice-versa?”, heldat the IUFRO 2014 World Congress in Salt Lake City, USA. Papers examine potential positive interactions between biodiversity and managing for timber production, especially of high-value species. These management goals can be in conflict. But the increasing demands for high-quality timber as well as for biodiversity conservation require that we consider these aims together. Papers range geographically from tropical to temperate forests.
The overview of the special issue can be found at: .
The links for the articles are available at:

Ward SE, Brokaw N, editors. 2016. International Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystem Services & Management. Special Issue: Synergies between biodiversity and timber management. 12(1-2):57-138.

Ward SE, Brokaw N. 2016. Synergies between biodiversity and timber management. International Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystem Services & Management 12(1-2):57-58. Open Access at: DOI 10.1080/21513732.2016.1169578

Löf M, Brunet J, Filyushkina A, Lindbladh M, Skovsgaard JP, Felton A. 2016. Management of oak forests: striking a balance between timber production, biodiversity and cultural services. International Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystem Services & Management 12(1-2):59-73. Open Access at: DOI 10.1080/21513732.2015.1120780

Owari T, Okamura K, Fukushi K, Kasahara H, Tatsumi S. 2016. Single-tree management for high-value timber species in a cool-temperate mixed forest in northern Japan. International Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystem Services & Management 12(1-2):74-82. Open Access at: DOI 10.1080/21513732.2016.1163734

Doucet J-L, Daïnou K, Ligot G, Ouédraogo D-Y, Bourland N, Ward SE, Tekam P, Lagoute P, Fayolle A. 2016. Enrichment of Central African logged forests with high-value tree species: testing a new approach to regenerating degraded forests. International Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystem Services & Management 12(1-2):83-95. Open Access at: DOI 10.1080/21513732.2016.1168868

Stephens SS, Bosu PP, Wagner MR. 2016. Effect of overstory tree species diversity and composition on ground foraging ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in timber plantations in Ghana. International Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystem Services & Management 12:(1-2):96-107. Open Access at: DOI 10.1080/21513732.2016.1158209

Onyekwelu JC, Olabiwonnu AA. 2016. Can forest plantations harbour biodiversity similar to natural forest ecosystems over time? International Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystem Services & Management 12:(1-2):108-115. Open Access at: DOI 10.1080/21513732.2016.1162199

Hébert F, Bachand M, Thiffault N, Paré D, Gagné P. 2016. Recovery of plant community functional traits following severe soil perturbation in plantations: a case-study. International Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystem Services & Management. 12(1-2):116-127. Open Access at: DOI 10.1080/21513732.2016.1146334

Merganič J, Merganičová K, Marušák R, Tipmann L, Šálek L, Dragoun L, Stolariková R. 2016. Relation between forest stand diversity and anticipated log quality in managed Central European forests. International Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystem Services & Management 12(1-2):128-138. Open Access at: DOI 10.1080/21513732.2016.1150883

A special issue for the journal Forest Ecology and Management 255 (2) was published on the "Sustainable management of high-value timber species of the Meliaceae” in 2008. This special issue grew out of the technical session entitled "Sustainable management of high value timber species of the Meliaceae: a global perspective", held at the 2005 IUFRO World Congress at Brisbane, Australia.

Ward SE, David Boshier D, James Grogan J, editors. 2008. Special Issue: Sustainable management of high-value timber species of the Meliaceae. Forest Ecology and Management 255(2):265-364.

Ward SE, David Boshier D, James Grogan J. 2008. Introduction. Forest Ecology and Management 255:265-268. DOI: PDF at

Grogan J, Jennings SB, Landis RM, Schulze M, Baima AM, Lopes JD, Norghauer JM, Oliveira LR, Pantoja F, Pinto D, Silva JN. 2008. What loggers leave behind: Impacts on big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) commercial populations and potential for post-logging recovery in the Brazilian Amazon. Forest Ecology and Management 255(2):269-281. DOI: PDF at

Norghauer JM, Malcolm JR, Zimmerman BL, Felfili JM. 2008. Experimental establishment of big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King) seedlings on two soil types in native forest of Pará, Brazil. Forest Ecology and Management. 255(2):282-291. DOI:

Hall JS. Seed and seedling survival of African mahogany (Entandrophragma spp.) in the Central African Republic: implications for forest management. 2008. Forest Ecology and Management 255(2):292-299. DOI: PDF at

do CA Lopes J, Jennings SB, Matni NM. 2008. Planting mahogany in canopy gaps created by commercial harvesting. Forest Ecology and Management 255(2):300-307. DOI: PDF at

Negreros-Castillo P, Mize CW. 2008. Regeneration of mahogany and Spanish cedar in gaps created by railroad tie extraction in Quintana Roo, Mexico. Forest Ecology and Management. 255(2):308-312. DOI:

Opuni-Frimpong E, Karnosky DF, Storer AJ, Abeney EA, Cobbinah JR. 2008. Relative susceptibility of four species of African mahogany to the shoot borer Hypsipyla robusta (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in the moist semideciduous forest of Ghana. Forest Ecology and Management 255(2):313-319. DOI:

Wadsworth FH, González E. 2008. Sustained mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) plantation heartwood increment. Forest Ecology and Management. 255(2):320-323. DOI: PDF at:

Pérez-Salicrup DR, Esquivel R. 2008. Tree infection by Hypsipyla grandella in Swietenia macrophylla and Cedrela odorata (Meliaceae) in Mexico's southern Yucatan Peninsula. Forest Ecology and Management. 255(2):324-327. DOI:

Opuni-Frimpong E, Karnosky DF, Storer AJ, Cobbinah JR. 2008. Silvicultural systems for plantation mahogany in Africa: influences of canopy shade on tree growth and pest damage. Forest Ecology and Management. 255(2):328-33. DOI:

de la Torre A, López C, Yglesias E, Cornelius JP. 2008. Genetic (AFLP) diversity of nine Cedrela odorata populations in Madre de Dios, southern Peruvian Amazon. Forest Ecology and Management. 255(2):334-9. DOI:

André T, Lemes MR, Grogan J, Gribel R. 2008. Post-logging loss of genetic diversity in a mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King, Meliaceae) population in Brazilian Amazonia. Forest Ecology and Management. 255(2):340-345. DOI: PDF at:

Wightman KE, Ward SE, Haggar JP, Santiago BR, Cornelius JP. 2008. Performance and genetic variation of big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King) in provenance and progeny trials in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico. Forest Ecology and Management 255(2):346-355. DOI: PDF at:

Ward SE, Wightman KE, Santiago BR. 2008. Early results from genetic trials on the growth of Spanish cedar and its susceptibility to the shoot borer moth in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Forest Ecology and Management 255(2):356-364. DOI: PDF at:

IUFRO Meliaceae Working Party 1.02.04 Technical Sessions and Abstracts

2019 IUFRO World Congress - Curitiba, Brazil, 29 September -5 October 2019
A2a: Sustaining iconic and high-value species in natural forests and plantations
C1b:Advances in management and science for the high-value Meliaceae
C1c: Improving high-value Meliaceae yields in plantations

2017 IUFRO 125th Anniversary Congress - Freiburg, Germany 18-22 September 2017
Technical session: Research advances for the Meliaceae.  Abstracts

2014 IUFRO World Congress - Salt Lake City, Utah 5-11 October 2014
Technical session: How does biodiversity help to manage high-value timber species, and vice-versa?  Abstracts

2013 Third IUFRO Latin American Congress (IUFROLAT) - San Jose, Costa Rica 12-15 June 2013
Technical session: Sustainable management and genetic resources in the Meliaceae.  Abstracts

2012 First IUFRO-FORNESSA Regional Congress - Nairobi, Kenya 25–30 June 2012
Technical sessions (3 sessions): Meliaceae Working Group.  Abstracts

2010 IUFRO World Congress - Seoul, Republic of Korea, 23-28 August 2010
Technical session: Sustaining tropical timber species: Is science making a difference?  Abstracts

2005 IUFRO World Congress - Brisbane, Australia, 8-13 August 2005
Technical session: Sustainable management of high value timber species of the Meliaceae: a global perspective.  Abstracts


Camara L, Snook L. 2005. Seis años de producción semillera de caoba (Swietenia macrophylla King) patrones de variación y sus implicaciones para la sostenibilidad. [Six years of seed production by mahogany trees: patterns of variation and implications for sustainability] Recursos Naturales y Ambiente 44:60-67.

Kasongo Yakusu E, Monthe FS, Bourland N, Hardy OJ, Louppe D, Bola Mbele Lokanda F, Hubau W, Kahindo Muhongya JM, Van Den Bulcke J, Van Acker J, Beeckman H. 2018. Le genre Entandrophragma (Meliaceae): taxonomie et écologie d’arbres africains d’intérêt économique (synthèse bibliographique). BIOTECHNOLOGIE AGRONOMIE SOCIETE ET ENVIRONNEMENT. 22(2):113-27.

Monthe FK, Duminil J, Kasongo Yakusu E, Beeckman H, Bourland N, Doucet JL, Sosef MS, Hardy OJ. 2018. The African timber tree Entandrophragma congoense (Pierre ex De Wild.) A. Chev. is morphologically and genetically distinct from Entandrophragma angolense (Welw.) C. DC. Tree Gen. & Genomes 14(5).

Negreros-Castillo P, Snook L, Mize CW. 2003. Regenerating mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King) from seed in Quintana Roo, Mexico: The effect of sowing method and clearing treatment. Forest Ecology and Management 183:351-362.

Negreros-Castillo P, Snook L, Mize C. 2005. Regeneración de caoba (Swietenia macrophylla) a partir de siembra directa de semilla en aperturas creadas de tres maneras en un bosque natural en México [Regenerating mahogany using direct seeding in clearings produced in three different ways in a natural forest in Mexico]. Recursos Naturales y Ambiente 44:84-90.

Nolasco A, Carreón M, Hernández C, Ibarra E, Snook L. 2005. El Marco del manejo de la caoba  (Swietenia macrophylla King) en Quintana Roo, Medico: legislación, responsabilidades y apoyos gubernamentales [The framework for management of mahogany in Quintana Roo, Mexico: legislation, responsibilities and support from government]. Recursos Naturales y Ambiente 44:19-26.

Nikles DG, Bevege DI, Dickinson GR, Griffiths MW, Reilly DF, Lee DJ. 2008. Developing African mahogany (Khaya senegalensis) germplasm and its management for a sustainable forest plantation industry in northern Australia - progress and needs. Australian Forestry 71:1:33-47. See PDF.

Nikles DG, Reilly DF, Dickinson GR, Lee DJ. 2012. African mahogany (Khaya senegalensis) plantations in Australia – status, needs and progress. Pp 17–25. In: Wood, K. (ed). Diverse sub-tropical forestry. Proceedings of the Australian Forest Growers Conference, Gympie, Queensland, 1417 October 2012. 130 pp. See PDF. [Incorrectly titled as Nikles, D. G. (2012)]. Available as a PDF from

Nikles DG, Reilly DF, Dickinson GR, Bailleres H, Huth JR, Zbonak A, Lee DJ. 2014. Domesticating African mahogany (Khaya senegalensis) in northern Australia – underpinning investment in plantations. Pp 104-130 in: “Trees – the future crop for changing climates”. Proceedings – Full Papers, Australian Forest Growers National Conference, Sunday 26 October – Wednesday 29 October 2014. Forest Research Centre Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW 2480. 218 pp. See PDF.

Nikles DG, Dickinson G, Bristow M, Lee D. 2016). Inventories and  Significance of the Genetic Resources of an African Mahogany Species (Khaya senegalensis (Desr.) A. Juss.) Assembled and Further Developed in Australia. Pp 169-188 in: Meadows, J, Harrison, S and Herbohn, J (eds) 2016. Small-scale and Community Forestry and the Changing Nature of Forest Landscapes, Proceedings from the IUFRO Research Group 3.08 Small-scale Forestry Conference held on the Sunshine Coast, Queensland, Australia, 11—15 October, 2015, 214pp. See PDF

Nikles DG. 2019. Status of domestication of Khaya senegalensis (Desr.) A. Juss. in Australia – 2019. Unpublished Abstract accepted by Antonio Ferraz for Session C1c of IUFRO Congress Brazil, Sept-Oct 2019. See PDF.

Ribeiro A, Ferraz Filho AC, Scolforo JRS. 2018. Tree height prediction in Brazilian Khaya ivorensis stands. Bosque, 39:15-26. Available at:

Ribeiro A, Silva CSJ, Ferraz Filho AC, Scolforo JRS. Financial and risk analysis of African mahogany plantations in Brazil. Ciência e Agrotecnologia, v. 42, p. 148-158, 2018. Available at:

Ribeiro A, Ferraz Filho AC, Tomé M, Scolforo JRS. 2016. Site quality curves for African mahogany plantations in Brazil. Cerne, 22: 439-448. Available at:

Ribeiro A. 2017. African mahogany plantations: modeling growth and yield in Brazil. 165 p. Doctoral Thesis, Federal University of Lavras. Available at:

Santos V, Mas P, López C, Snook L, Escobar C. 2005. El manejo forestal y de la caoba entre los ejidos de la Zona Maya: trayectoria histórica, condiciones actuales y perspectivas [Management of forests and mahogany among the communities of the Maya Zone: historical trajectory, current conditions, and perspectives]. Recursos Naturales y Ambiente 44:27-36.

Shono K, Snook L. 2006. Growth of big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King) in natural forests in Belize. Journal of Tropical Forest Science. 18(1):66-73.

Snook L. 1993. Stand Dynamics of Mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King) and Associated Species after Fire and Hurricane in the Tropical Forests of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Doctoral Dissertation, Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, New Haven, CT. 254 pp. #9317535, University Microfilms International, Ann Arbor, MI

Snook L. 1996. Catastrophic disturbance, logging and the ecology of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King): Grounds for listing a major tropical timber species in CITES. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, Vol. 122:35-46.

Snook L. 1998. Sustaining harvests of mahogany from Mexico's Yucatan forests: Past, Present and Future.  Chapter 5, pp. 61-80 in Primack, R., D. Bray, H Galletti and I. Ponciano (eds), Timber, Tourists and Temples: Conservation and Community Development in the Mayan Rainforest of Belize, Guatemala and Mexico, Island Press.

Snook L. 2000. Regeneración y crecimiento de la caoba (Swietenia macrophylla King) en las selvas naturales de Quintana Roo, Mexico (Regeneration and growth of mahogany in the natural tropical forests of Quintana Roo). Ciencia Forestal en Mexico 259(87):59-76.

Snook L. 2003. Regeneration, growth and sustainability of mahogany in Mexico's Yucatan forests, Chapter 9, pp. 169-192 in Lugo, A., J. Figueroa and M. Alayon (eds) Big-Leaf Mahogany Ecology, Genetics and Management, Springer-Verlag.

Snook L. 2005. Sustaining Mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King): Research and silviculture in Mexico’s community forests. Bois et Fôrets des Tropiques No. 285(3):55-65.

Snook L. 2005. Aprovechamiento sostenido de caoba (Swietenia macrophylla King) de la Selva Maya de México: De la conservación fortuita al manejo sostenible [Sustainable extraction of mahogany from Mexico’s Maya forest: from fortuitous conservation to sustainable management] Recursos Naturales y Ambiente 44:9-18.

Snook L, Camara Cabrales L, Kelty M. 2005. Six years of fruit production by mahogany trees (Swietenia macrophylla King): Patterns of variation and implications for sustainability. Forest Ecology and Management 206:221-235.

Snook L, Iskandar H, Chow J, Cohen J, O’Connor J. 2005. Supervivencia y crecimiento de la caoba (Swietenia macrophylla) en aperturas post-extracción, a partir de semillas y de plántulas [Survival and growth of mahogany in post-felling gaps, from seed and seedlings] Recursos Naturales y Ambiente 44:76-83.

Snook L, Negreros-Castillo P. 2004. Regenerating mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King) on clearings in Mexico’s Maya Forest: the effects of clearing treatment and cleaning on seedling survival and growth. Forest Ecology and Management 189:143-169.

Snook L, Navarro C. 2005. Special issue on Mahogany (in Spanish). Recursos Naturales y Ambiente 44:6-99.

Snook L, Negreros-Castillo P, O’Connor J. 2005. Supervivencia y crecimiento de plántulas de caoba en aperturas de diferentes tamaños, creadas de tres diferentes maneras en la Selva Maya de Belice y México. [Survival and growth of mahogany seedlings in openings of different sizes created using three different techniques in the Maya Forest of Mexico and Belize]. Recursos Naturales y Ambiente 44: 91-99.

Snook LK, Santos Jimenez VA, Carreón Mundo M, Chan Rivas C, May Ek FJ, Mas Kantún P, Nolasco Morales A, Hernández Hernández C, Escobar Ruíz C. 2003. Managing natural forests for sustainable harvests of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla): experiences in Mexico's community forests. Unasylva 214/215, Vol 54:68-73 (in English, Spanish and French).

Timyan, J. C. 1996. Bwa Yo: Important Trees of Haiti. SECID, Washington D. C. 418 p. Swietenia mahagoni Chapter 6. Azadirachta indica Chapter 17. There are other chapters with reference to species in the Melicaceae regarding wood properties, medicinal uses, scientific and common names, biomass and volume tables, Haitian proverbs, etc. The online version of the book is available at

Toledo M, Snook L. 2005. Efectos de la dispersión de semillas y tratamientos silviculturales en la regeneración natural de la caoba (Swietenia macrophylla King) en Belice [The effect of seed dispersal and silvicultural treatments on the natural regeneration of mahogany in Belize]. Recursos Naturales y Ambiente 44:68-75.

Van Zonneveld M, Maselli S, Alarcon-Mendez MF, Madrid Cruz J, Loo J, Snook L, Duminil J. 2018. Estudio de la diversidad genética de la caoba (Swietenia macrophylla King) en las concesiones forestales comunitarias de la zona de usos múltiples de la Reserva de la Biósfera Maya, Guatemala [Study of the genetic diversity of mahogany in the community forest concessions of the multiple use zone of the Maya Biosphere Reserve, Guatemala]. Bioversity International, Rome. 48 pp.

Yakusu EK, Louppe D, Monthe FS, Hardy OJ, Lokanda FB, Hubau W, Van Den Bulcke J, Van Acker J, Beeckman H, Bourland N. 2019. Enjeux et amélioration de la gestion des espèces du genre Entandrophragma, arbres africains devenus vulnérables. BOIS & FORETS DES TROPIQUES. 339(1):74-95.