Publications and references

    • Ashmore M.R., 2005. Assessing the future global impacts of ozone on vegetation. Plant Cell Environment 28(8):949–964.
    • Augustaitis A., Augustaitiene I., Deltuvas R., 2007. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) crown defoliation in relation to the acid deposition and meteorology in Lithuania. Water, Air and Soil Pollution. Journal Article
    • Augustaitis A., Augustaitiene I., Kliucius A., Bartkevicius E., Mozgeris G., Sopauskiene D., Eitminaviciute I., Arbaciauskas K., Mazeikyte R., Bauziene I., 2005. Impact of acidity components in the air and their deposition on biota in forest ecosystems. Baltic For 2:84–93.
    • Bull K.R., Achermann B., Bashkin V., Chrast R., Fenech G., Forsius M., Gregor H.D., Guardans R., Hauβmann T., Hayes F., Hettelingh J.P., Johannessen T., Krzyzanowski M., Kucera V., Kvaeven B., Lorenz M., Lundan L., Mills G., Posch M., Skjelkvale B.J. and Ulstein M.J., 2001. Coordinated effects monitoring and modelling for developing and supporting international air pollution control agreements. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 130:119-130.
    • Bussotti F., Schaub M., Cozzi A., Gerosa G., Novak K., Hug C. 2006. Sources of errors in assessing ozone visible symptoms on native vegetation. Environmental Pollution. Environmental Pollution 140:257-268.
    • Bussotti F., Schaub M., Cozzi A., Kräuchi N., Ferretti M., Novak N., Skelly J.M., 2003. Assessment of ozone visible symptoms in the field: perspectives of quality control. Environmental Pollution 125:81-89.
    • Bytnerowicz A., Godzik B., Grodzinska K., Fraczek W., Musselman R., Manning W., Badea O., Popescu F., Fleischer P., 2004. Ambient ozone in forests of the central and eastern European mountains. Environmental Pollution 130: 5–16.
    • Bytnerowicz A., Omasa K., Paoletti E., 2006. Integrated effects of air pollution and climate change on forests: a northern hemisphere perspective. Environmental Pollution. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2006.08.028.
    • De Vries W., Reinds G.J., Deelstra H.F., Klap J.M., Vel M., 1998. Intensyve monitoring of forest ecosystems in Europe. Technical Report FIMCI 1998, Herenveen, 170 p.
    • De Vries W., Klap J., Erisman J.W., 2000. Effects of environmental stress on forest crown condition in Europe. Part I: Hypotheses and approach to the study. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 119:317–333.
    • De Vries W., Reinds G.J., Klap J., Leeuwen E., Eisman J.W., 1997. Critical thresholds for sulphur and nitrogen compounds and ozone. In Ten years of monitoring forest condition in Europe. EC-UNEC. 261-276 p.
    • De Vries W., Reinds G. J., Klap J. M., van Leeuwen E. P., Erisman J. W., 2000. Effects of Environmental Stress on Forest Crown Condition in Europe. Part III: Estimation of Critical Deposition and Concentration Levels and Their Exceedances. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 119:363–386.
    • De Vries W., Vel E., Reinds G. J., Deelstra H., Klap J. M., Leeters E.E.J.M., Hendriks C.M.A., Kerkvoorden M., Landmann G., Herkendell J., Haussmann T., Erisman J. W., 2003. Intensive monitoring of forest ecosystems in Europe: 1. Objectives, set-up and evaluation strategy. Forest Ecology and Management 174:77-95.
    • Ferretti M., Bussotti F., Calatayud V., Sanz M.J., Schaub M., Kräuchi N., Petriccione B., Sanchez-Peña G., Ulrich E., 2007. Ozone and forests in South-Western Europe. Environmental Pollution 145:617-619.
    • Ferretti M., Bussotti F., Calatayud V., Schaub M., Kräuchi N., Petriccione B., Sanchez-Peña G., Sanz M.J., Ulrich E., 2007. Ozone and forests in South-Western Europe - What have we learned? Environmental Pollution 145:652-655.
    • Gravano E., Bussotti F., Strasser R., Schaub M., Novak K., Skelly J., Tani C., 2004. Ozone symptoms in leaves of woody plants in open top chambers: Ultrastructural and physiological characteristics. Physiologia Plantarum 121:620-633.
    • Karlsson PE, Braun, S, Broadmeadow M, Elvira S, Emberson L, Gimeno BS, Le Thiec D, Novak K, Oksanen E, Schaub M, Uddling J, Wilkinson M (2007) Risk assessments for forest trees: The performance of the ozone flux versus the AOT concepts. Environmental Pollution 146:608-616. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2006.06.012
    • Klap J. M., Oude Voshaar J. H., de Vries W., Erisman J. W., 2000. Effects of Environmental Stress on Forest Crown Condition in Europe. Part IV: Statistical Analyses of Relationships. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 119:387–420.
    • Manning W.J., 2005. Establishing a cause and effect relationship for ambient ozone exposure and tree growth in the forest: progress and an experimental approach. Environmental Pollution 137:443–454.
    • Matyssek R, Bytnerowicz A, Karlsson PE, Paoletti E, Sanz M, Schaub M, Wieser G (2007) Promoting the O3 flux concept for European forest trees. Environmental Pollution 146:587-607.
    • Novak K, Schaub M, Fuhrer J, Skelly JM, Frey B, Kräuchi N (2008) Ozone effects on visible foliar injury and growth of Fagus sylvatica and Viburnum lantana seedlings grown in monoculture or in mixture. Environmental and Experimental Botany 62(3):212-220. doi:10.1016/j.envexpbot.2007.08.008
    • Novak K., Schaub M., Fuhrer J., Skelly J.M., Hug C., Landolt W., Bleuler P., Kräuchi N., 2005. Seasonal trends in reduced leaf gas exchange and ozone-induced foliar injury in three ozone sensitive woody plant species. Environmental Pollution 136:33-45.
    • Novak K., Skelly J.M., Schaub M., Kräuchi N., Hug C., Landolt W., Bleuler P., 2003. Ozone air pollution and foliar injury development on native plants of Switzerland. Environmental Pollution 125:41-52.
    • Paoletti E., 2006. Impact of ozone on Mediterranean forests: a review. Environmental Pollution 144:463–474.
    • Paoletti E., Bytnerowicz A., Schaub M., 2007. Key Studies on Air Pollution and Climate Change Impacts on Forests: An Introduction. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. Link to Journal 
    • Percy K.E. and Ferretti M., 2004. Air pollution and forest health. Toward new monitoring concepts. Environmental Pollution 130:113-126.
      • Schaub M (2009) Future monitoring and research needs for forest ecosystems in a changing environment: an introduction. iForest 2:54-55. Link to publication:

      • Schaub M., Emberson L., Büker P., Kräuchi N., 2007. Preliminary results of modeled ozone uptake for Fagus sylvatica L. trees at selected EU/UNECE intensive monitoring plots. Environmental Pollution 145:636-643.

      • Schaub M and Paoletti E (2007) Introductory remarks to the special section for the 2005 IUFRO World Congress, Brisbane, Australia. In: Schaub, M. and Paoletti, E. 2007 (Eds.) Air Pollution and Climate Change: A global overview of the effects on forest vegetation. Environmental Pollution 147:429.
      • Solberg S., Derwent R.G., Hov O., Langner J., Lindskog A., 2005. European abatement of surface ozone in a global perspective. Ambio 34: 47–53.
      • Szaro R.C., Bytnerowicz A., Oszlanyi J. (Eds.), 2002. Effect of Air Pollution on Forest Health and Biodiversity in Forest of the Carpathian Mountains. NATO Science Service.
      • UN-ECE, 2004. Mapping critical levels for vegetation (Chapter 3). In: Revised Manual on Methodologies and Criteria for Mapping Critical Levels/Loads and Geographical Areas Where They are Exceeded. Umweltbundesamt, Berlin, Germany, 53 p.
      • Van Leeuwen E.P., Hendriks K.C.M.A., Klap J.M., de Vries W.D., Jong E.D., Erisman J.W., 2000. Effects of environmental stress on forest crown condition in Europe. Part II: Estimation of stress induced by meteorology and air pollutants, Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 119:335-362.
      • Waldner P., Schaub M., Pannatier E., Schmitt M., Thimonier A., Walthert L., 2007. Critical loads of acidity and nitrogen, and critical levels of ozone in Swiss forests. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. Link to Journal
      • Wright R.F., Larssen T., Camarero L., Cosby B.J., Ferrier R., Helliwell R., Forsius M., Jenkins A., Kopa

      Links to other information resources


      Environmental Monitoring in Finland:

      European Forest Institute:

      International Air Pollution Workshop:

      International Long Term Ecological Research (ILTER):

      On-line data base for ozone visible injury:

      Ozone effects:

      Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research:

      UN-ECE, Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution:

      UN-ECE / ICP-Forests:

      UN-ECE / ICP-Forests Submanual for the Assessment of Ozone Injury on European Forest Ecosystems:

      U.S. Forest Health Monitoring Program:

      U.S. Forest Inventory and Analysis Program: