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Publications and references

IUFRO proceedings

      • Division 7 Webinar Series: Tree resistance to diseases and pests – Interaction with and facilitation by microbiome; online; 13 October 2021, 16:00 Johannesburg (14:00 UTC). IUFRO Units involved: 7.03.11, 2.02.15. Webinar homepage - Video recording     
      • 2019 Joint Meeting of IUFRO Working Parties: Genetics and Breeding of 5-needle pines (2.02.15) and Rusts of Forest Trees (7.02.05). Invermere, BC, Canada; 22-26 July 2019. Units involved: 2.02.15, 7.02.05.  Proceedings (30.1 MB, PDF)
      • 6th International Workshop on the Genetics of Tree-Parasite Interactions: Tree Resistance to Insects and Diseases: Putting Promise into Practice; Mt. Sterling, Ohio, USA; 5-10 August 2018. Units involved: 2.02.15, 7.03.11, IUFRO Task Force on Forests and Biological Invasions. Proceedings (10.9 MB, PDF)
      • Genetics of five-needle pines and rusts in mountain landscapes – Conservation, utilization and evolution in a changing climate; Fort Collins, CO, USA; 15-21 June 2014. Units involved: 2.02.15, 7.02.05. Proceedings (31.8 MB, PDF)

        Schoettle, Anna W.; Sniezko, Richard A.; Kliejunas, John T., eds. 2018. Proceedings of the IUFRO joint conference: Genetics of five-needle pines, rusts of forest trees, and Strobusphere; 2014 June 15-20; Fort Collins, CO. Proc. RMRS-P-76. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. 245 p. 

        This conference was a joint international conference of three groups: IUFRO 2.02.15 (Breeding and Genetic Resources of Five-Needle Pines), IUFRO 7.02.05 (Rusts of Forest Trees), and Strobusphere. This was the first time these three groups met together to share research in genetics-pathology of five-needle pines and rusts of forest trees.
      • Fourth International Workshop on the Genetics of Host-Parasite Interactions in Forestry; Eugene, OR, United States; 31 July - 5 August 2011. Book of Abstracts - Proceedings
      • The Breeding and Genetic Resources of Five-Needle Pines: Ecophysiology, Disease Resistance and Developmental Biology; Yangyang, Korea;  22-26 September 2008. Korean Forest Research Institute; Proceedings

        Noshad David; Noh Eun Woon; King, John; Sniezko, Richard A. (Eds. 2009) Breeding and Genetic Resources of Five-Needle Pines. Proceedings of the Conference 2008, Yangyang, Korea. Korea Forest Research Institute, Seoul 104p. ISBN 978-89-8176-605-4 (93520).

        The Proceedings presented represent the 3rd highly successful conference we have held in recent years for the IUFRO Working Party 2.02.15: The Breeding and Genetic Resources of Five-Needle Pines. This working group highlights work related to quantitative and molecular genetics, resistance to diseases and pests, hybridization, selection and improvement, genecology and conservation genetics in all five-needle pines. Underlying this work is the threat that this species group faces from climate change and disease especially white pine blister rust.
      • Breeding and genetic resources of five-needle pines; Valiug, Romania; 19-23 September 2006. Proceedings - Abstracts - Posters

        The Symposium proceedings were printed and published in the Annals of Forest Research, journal of forestry and environmental sciences (Vol. 51, 2008, 180 p.) of the Bucharest Forest Research & Management Institute; Link to Annals of Forest Research

        The proceedings can be ordered free of charge from Dr. Iovu Biris: ecologie(at)

        Selected papers from the symposium were published in a special issue of Forest Genetics 13 (1), 2008.
      • Breeding and genetic resources of five-needle pines: growth, adaptability, and pest resistance; Medford, OR, USA; 23-27 July 2001. Proceedings

        Sniezko, Richard A.; Samman, Safiya; Schlarbaum, Scott E.; Kriebel, Howard B. eds. 2004. Breeding and genetic resources of five-needle pines: growth, adaptability, and pest resistance; 2001 July 23-27; Medford, OR, USA. IUFRO Working Party 2.02.15. Proceedings RMRS-P-32. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. 259 p.

        This volume presents 29 overview and research papers on the breeding, genetic variation, genecology, gene conservation, and pest resistance of five-needle pines ( Pinus L. subgenus Strobus Lemm.) from throughout the world. Overview papers provide information on past and present research as well as future needs for research on white pines from North America, Europe, and Asia. Research papers, more narrowly focused, cover various aspects of genetics. Throughout the distribution of five-needle pines, but particularly in many of the nine North American species, the pathogen Cronartium ribicola J.C. Fisch. continues to cause high levels of mortality and threatens ecosystems and plantations. Studies on genetic resistance to C. ribicola are described in papers from different regions of the world. Use of P. strobus as an exotic species in Europe and Russia and corresponding problems with white pine blister rust are discussed in several papers. Other papers focus on examining and exploiting patterns of genetic variation of different species.

      Non-IUFRO Proceedings

      Forthcoming special edition in Forest Pathology on the impact of white pine blister rust on North American 5-Needle Pines. Available at


      Example of conservation work in Pinus chiapensis – combining genetics, ecology and conservation for an important keystone species by Rafael F. Del Castillo – preliminary work presented at Yangyang, Korea Meeting. Download PDF document


      1. Whitebark pine restoration strategy for the Pacific Northwest Region 2009–2013.

      2.  Land managers guide to whitebark pine restoration in the Pacific Northwest Region 2009–2013.

      A separate executive summary of the conservation strategy is also available:
      3.   Whitebark pine restoration strategy for the Pacific Northwest 2009–2013: executive summary.

      These documents represent the culmination of a 4-year project by the Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, which began in 2005.  The objectives of this regional effort were to (1) complete whitebark pine health status and genetic assessments, (2) accelerate seed sampling for blister rust resistance screening and gene conservation, and (3) develop a conservation and restoration plan for 2009-2013.  The long-term goal of the whitebark pine program is to sustain a network of viable populations of whitebark pine and associated species throughout the Pacific Northwest.

      We hope to have these publications online soon (at , but they can be ordered here


      Schoettle A.W., and Sniezko R.A. 2007. Proactive intervention to sustain high elevation pine ecosystems threatened by white pine blister rust.12:327-336.. Journal of Forest Research. Download paper in PDF format


      Proceedings of the conference whitebark pine: a Pacific Coast perspective. 2006 August 27-31. Ashland, OR. R6-NR-FHP-2007-01. Portland, OR: Pacific Northwest Region, Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. Download proceedings in PDF format